Bold color is when there is a color that stands out like the leaves stand out above the building. Dramatic lighting is when the sun’s light hits the main subject in a cool way. Texture makes the picture show you how an object feels like the train shows you how it will feel.
The two city pictures I used dodge and burn to make it lighter and darker. The picture of the skull I used the value/lighting and made the whole picture brighter.
Shutter speed is how long the lense stay open to collect light. They longer they are open, the more light and blur is in the picture. The shorter its open, the more clear the picture is. The shutter speeds are out of fractions of a second ranging from 30 seconds all the way to 1/4000 of a second.
Fstops are used to make the background more or less blurry. The higher the fstop, the clearer and more in-focus the background becomes. The first picture has a low fstop, or a short depth of field. This is a pretty much like close up, just more custumized. The second picture as a high fstop, or a long depth of field. This is a more custumized landscape.